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Additional info for The Ancient Synagogue: The First Thousand Years, Second Edition
Dion, ‘‘Synagogues et temples,’’ 45–75. 23. The weak point of Griﬃths’ argument is due not just to the very restricted facts on hand for such Egyptian temples. whether one have been to think that the according to Ankh served as a spot of guide, it sounds as if to were conﬁned to priestly circles and centred seriously on funerary rites, together with a few kind of scientific and cultic schooling in addition; see Gardiner, ‘‘House of Life,’’ 157–79; Grabbe, Judaism, I, ninety five. this is often certainly a much cry from the perform of weekly scriptural readings for the whole Jewish group within the proseuche that integrated a gamut of issues present in the Torah and Prophets. in addition, the sort of advice ignores any past traditions that the Jews may have introduced with them from Judaea in regards to the studying of Scriptures, e. g. , Deuteronomy or Nehemiah eight. See during this regard the fascinating comment made by means of Hecataeus, that the excessive priest Ezekias learn to his pals from Scriptures that he introduced from Judaea to Egypt within the past due fourth century ( Josephus, opposed to Apion 1, 187–89, and reviews in A. Kasher, Josephus, opposed to Apion, I, 179–81). For a extra huge critique of this idea, see my ‘‘First-Century Synagogue. ’’ 24. Rivkin, ‘‘Ben Sira and the Non-Existence of the Synagogue,’’ 320–48. This method has additionally been followed by way of Gutmann, ‘‘Synagogue Origins,’’ 3–4. 7276 Levine / the traditional SYNAGOGUE (Second version) / sheet forty six of 814 28 historic improvement of the synagogue daean synagogue is a past due phenomenon. because the earliest Judaean synagogue is attested simply within the overdue ﬁrst century b. c. e. , Grabbe concludes that the establishment itself is postMaccabean. 25 certainly, either Jewish and pagan resources of the pre-Roman interval fail to say the life of a Judaean synagogue—neither Hecataeus of Abdera, Manetho, nor Mnaseas of Patara. 26 Agatharchides (second century b. c. e. ), in his description of spiritual practices speciﬁcally within the Jerusalem Temple, observes the next: the folks often called Jews, who inhabit the main strongly fortiﬁed of towns, known as through the natives Jerusalem, have a customized of abstaining from paintings each 7th day; on these events they neither undergo hands nor take any agricultural operations in hand, nor have interaction in the other type of public provider, yet pray with outstretched arms within the temples till the night [emphasis mine—LL]. 27 The above connection with ‘‘temples’’ (τοῖς ἱεροῖς) has been interpreted by way of a few as relating synagogues. 28 even if, it's much more likely that the reference used to be certainly to the Jerusalem Temple and that using the plural right here was once inadvertent; pagan writers may have thought of using the plural, ‘‘temples,’’ such a lot ordinary. at the least, a widely known and oft-frequented spiritual atmosphere in Jerusalem at the moment may perhaps in simple terms were the Temple, and praying all day with outstretched fingers is very strange and may make a few experience, if in any respect, within the Temple and never a synagogue environment. the single different risk is that Agatharchides used to be touching on convinced Diaspora synagogues, the place Sabbath worship (though no longer unavoidably praying with outstretched palms) may have lasted a lot or lots of the day.